Outbreak and Current Disease Status Information

PRO/EDR> Influenza (14): WHO global update

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 14:35
Influenza -- Worldwide/Unknown
Information in this report is categorized by influenza transmission zones, which are geographical groups of countries, areas, or territories with similar influenza transmission patterns.
Influenza activity decreased in most of the countries in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, with exception of Eastern Europe where activity continued to increase. In the temperate zone of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained at inter-seasonal levels. Worldwide,

PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax - China: (NX) livestock, human

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 14:25
Anthrax -- China
At least 3 human anthrax cases have been reported in north-central China, including one fatality, according to a RFA report (computer translated).The outbreak of cutaneous anthrax is reported in 2 towns of Zhongwei City, Ningxia region where the patients had consumed tainted cow and mutton. The 2 surviving patients are currently hospitalized and stable.
Upon discovery of the cases, authorities quarantined the area and closed the livestock market.
Anthrax is a serious infectious disease

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (68): Togo (MA) poultry, HPAI H5N1, OIE

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 14:24
Avian Influenza H5N1 -- Togo
Information received on [and dated] 18 Apr 2018 from Dr Batawui Komla Batasse, Director of [Livestock and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Breeding and Fisheries], Lome, Togo
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 27 Mar 2018
Date of confirmation of the event: 16 Apr 2018
Reason for notification: reoccurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 24 Oct 2017
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: Highly

PRO/EDR> Measles update (25): Asia, Pacific, Africa, Middle East, Europe, USA

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 10:58
Measles -- China
A pilot and a flight attendant working for low-cost carrier Tigerair Taiwan on [Sun 15 Apr 2018] tested positive for measles, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said, adding that it is investigating whether the infections are associated with recent cluster cases.
The 2 had come in contact with 2 other Tigerair flight attendants who had contracted the disease earlier this month [April 2018], the CDC said.
The cluster cases were traced to a Taiwanese man who was infected with measles

PRO/PL> Potato spindle tuber viroid - Netherlands: epidemiology

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 10:55
Other Plant Disease -- Netherlands
In 2014, potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was identified in a potato clone originating from a breeding company in the Netherlands. This clone was submitted for micro propagation and tested for PSTVd. This initiated actions to track the infections. PSTVd was also found at a research institute. At both locations the viroid was eradicated.
Additional surveys revealed no further infections [in seed potato lines] in the Netherlands. They included testing of each plant in all crossing

PRO/PL> Blast disease, rice - Bangladesh: (RJ)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 10:53
Other Plant Disease -- Bangladesh
Farmers in Sirajganj district [Rajshahi division] are worried of getting poor yield of [rice] crops due to blast attack, according to the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE). Some 20 000 hectares [about 49 420 acres] have been affected by the disease in the last 3 days.
DAE cancelled the leave of all staff in affected [areas] for bringing the situation under control as well as to protect the paddy fields from the attack.
DAE said farmers did not put fertiliser in a proper way.

PRO/EDR> Diphtheria - Americas: PAHO epidemiological update

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 21:13
Diphtheria -- Worldwide/Unknown
In 2017, 4 countries in the Region of the Americas -- Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela -- reported confirmed diphtheria cases. In 2018 as of epidemiological week (EW) 14 of 2018, 4 countries in the Region -- Brazil, Colombia, Haiti, and Venezuela -- have reported suspected and confirmed diphtheria cases.
The following is a summary of the situation in each country with reported suspected and confirmed cases in 2018.
In Brazil in 2017, there

PRO/AH/EDR> E. coli EHEC - USA (05): O157, romaine lettuce

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 20:43
E. coli -- United States
Alaska / 1
Arizona / 3
California / 1
Connecticut / 2
Idaho / 10
Illinois / 1
Louisiana / 1
Michigan / 2
Missouri / 1
Montana / 6
New Jersey / 7
New York / 2
Ohio / 2
Pennsylvania / 12
Virginia / 1
Washington / 1
Total / 53
Illnesses that occurred after 29 Mar 2018, might not yet be reported due to the time it takes between when a person becomes ill with _E. coli_ and when the illness is reported. This takes an average of 2 to 3

PRO/AH/EDR> Cysticercus bovis - Zimbabwe: bovine

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 20:36
Cysticercosis -- Zimbabwe
A leading meat processing firm in Bulawayo says most animals from communal farmers are being condemned and destroyed at slaughter point as they are infected with measles [bovine cysticercosis] due to poor hygiene, and farmers are losing a lot of money.
A healthy environment remains critical in livestock farming, and farmers have been reminded of the importance of a hygienic environment to prevent diseases such as measles in animals that has cost farmers thousands of dollars, as more than 10

PRO/EDR> Hepatitis E - Namibia (06): (KH) fatal

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 20:32
Hepatitis E -- Namibia
"Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is severe during pregnancy, with a pregnant case fatality rate around 30 per cent. In Bangladesh, plasma samples from 1100 women during the 1st trimester (TM) and 3rd TM of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum (PP) were tested for anti-HEV IgG. During this time, 40 women developed antibody responses to HEV. These seroconverters are classified as the cases (incidence = 46 infections per 1000 person-years). All except one seroconversion occurred between the 3rd TM

PRO/PL> Late blight, potato - India: strain Blue 13

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 20:26
Other Plant Disease -- India
West Bengal State University [WBSU] have found 19 unique and highly aggressive variants of _Phytophthora infestans_. These variants are from the European 13_A2 [Blue 13] genotype and were responsible for the 2013-14 epidemic in West Bengal that shrank potato yield by 8000 kg per hectare.
Pathogen diversity was found to be highest near international borders with Bangladesh and Nepal. Both regularly import potatoes. In 2012, the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research had found 13_A2

PRO/AH/EDR> Equine encephalosis - India: (MH) equine, 2008, 1st case

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 20:25
Other Animal Disease -- India
Ten years ago [2008] when 14 horses fell ill -- one of which died -- at a Pune farm, scientists at the National Institute of Virology (NIV) conducted a series of tests to rule out Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness and other diseases that affect equines. Now, a decade later [2018], they have been able to identify the cause of death: the horse had been infected with the equine encephalosis virus (EEV).
The presence of the virus in India has also fuelled concern among the scientists as

PRO/AH/EDR> Malaria, P. cynomolgi - Malaysia: (SK)

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 20:01
Malaria -- Malaysia
Several people in Malaysia have become infected with a species of monkey malaria parasite that, until recently, had been recorded in just one person outside of the lab.
Although only a few cases have been detected, researchers are worried that the ongoing destruction of monkeys' forest habitat is increasing the amount of contact between people and primates, providing more opportunities for infections to jump to people.
In January [2018], researchers identified the parasite _Plasmodium

PRO/EDR> Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (17): Africa, Asia

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 19:43
Cholera -- Worldwide/Unknown
Congo: at W12, 32 suspected cases were reported from Plateaux and Likouala Departments, which share borders with affected districts in D. R. Congo.
D. R. Congo: cholera is still active in the Eastern endemic Provinces, some outbreaks persist in the Western part. Yet, the overall situation is slightly improving at W12 as no provinces recorded more than 100 cases.
Liberia: 9 suspected case were reported between week 11 and week 12.
Nigeria: 175 suspected

PRO/AH/EDR> Hantavirus - Americas (29): Panama (LS)

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 19:34
Hantavirus -- Panama
Carlos Muñoz, from the provincial Department of Epidemiology, stated that this weekend a 64 year old patient from the El Bebedero area in the Tonosí district, was admitted to the Joaquín Pablo Franco Hospital in Las Tablas [with a hantavirus infection]. Also, a 26 year old patient from El Cacao is [hospitalized and] currently on assisted ventilation.
According to health authorities, so far in 2018, 23 cases have been registered; 14 from Los Santo [province]. Almost all the patients have

PRO/EDR> Meningitis, meningococcal - Fiji (03): fatal, children, sg.C, more cases

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 19:31
Meningitis - Neisseria -- Fiji
Fiji has recorded 4 deaths caused by the meningococcal disease so far this year [2018]. This was revealed by the Minister for Health and Medical Services Rosy Akbar in Parliament yesterday [Tue 17 Apr 2018].
Ms. Akbar said the ministry declared a national outbreak of meningococcal C on [20 Mar 2018], after a review was made on the evidence and recommendations by health experts on the National Meningococcal Taskforce.
She added that there have been 46 cases from [1 Jan to 12 Apr 2018]; 22

PRO/AH/EDR> MERS-CoV (13): Saudi Arabia, new cases, superspreader

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 19:22
MERS -- Saudi Arabia
Difficulty distinguishing pneumonia from volume overload in a patient with renal failure delayed a MERS-CoV diagnosis at a Riyadh hospital last year [2017], which led to a superspreading event that sickened 44 people at 3 health facilities, Saudi researchers reported in the American Journal of Infection Control.
In their detailed report on the outbreak and its spread, the group said the lessons they learned could help fine-tune protocols for screening for the MERS-CoV (Middle East

PRO/AH/EDR> Cryptosporidiosis - USA: (RI) petting farm

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 13:07
Cryptosporidium -- United States
Animals at a Middletown farm are being quarantined after 3 people got sick, Rhode Island health officials announced [Mon 16 Apr 2018].
The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management [DEM] said one child and 2 adults came down with cryptosporidiosis after having contact with goats during "pet and cuddle" events at Simmons Farm on West Main Road on [25 and 31 Mar 2018].
"Cryptosporidiosis lives in the gut of infected humans or animals. It is spread through contact with the feces

PRO/AH/EDR> Rabies - Americas (20): USA (TX) bat, human exp

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 12:52
Rabies -- United States
Hundreds of parents received a recorded voicemail from the high school principal. The call came after students came face-to-face with bats, twice in one week.
[SC] was one of the many parents that packed into the Brennan High School [in San Antonio, Texas] parking lot to pick up her daughter. She played the school voicemail that was left on her phone. "The result of the 1st bat tested positive for rabies," the recording said. The school also released a letter to parents to inform them about

PRO/EDR> Varicella update (08): UK (England) necrotizing retinitis

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 04/18/2018 - 11:32
Chicken Pox -- United Kingdom
A 4-year-old presented to Manchester Royal Eye Hospital with acute visual loss in her left eye after an uneventful episode of chickenpox.
Clinicians have described what they believe is only the 4th reported case of retinitis in a child following infection with chickenpox.
Writing in BMJ Case Reports [see reference above], Manchester Royal Eye Hospital clinicians highlight that the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with visual loss and redness in her left eye is a reminder that the
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