Outbreak and Current Disease Status Information

PRO/AH/EDR> Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (17): (GA)

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 08/10/2018 - 04:48
Eastern Equine Encephalitis -- United States
Health officials in Georgia confirm a horse in Colquitt county has tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis [EEE]. "EEE is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes," said Colquitt County Environmental Health county manager Lawanda Lovett.
According to the Georgia Department of Public Health, symptoms in horses include fever, depression, lack of appetite, facial paralysis, tongue weakness, difficulty swallowing,

PRO/AH> Peste des petits ruminants - Sierra Leone: (EA) ovine, caprine, OIE

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 08/10/2018 - 04:45
Peste des petits ruminants -- Sierra Leone
Information received on 9 Aug 2018 from Dr Francis AR Sankoh, director, Livestock Services Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bruxelles, Sierra Leone
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 10 Jul 2018
Date of confirmation of the event: 15 Jul 2018
Reason for notification: recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: Jun 2016
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: Peste des petits ruminants

PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax - China (03): (HL) ovine, human, susp

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 08/10/2018 - 04:40
Anthrax -- China
A total of 255 sheep have been slaughtered following a suspected outbreak of anthrax in Jiamusi City, north east China's Heilongjiang Province. According to the Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center of Huanan County in Jiamusi, newly purchased sheep from the province's Qitaihe City died from suspected anthrax at a local breeding site.
Huanan authorities promptly launched an emergency response plan, implementing a series of measures to disinfect the area and prevent the spread of the

PRO/EDR> Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (28): Americas, WHO

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 08/10/2018 - 04:38
Cholera -- Dominican Republic
Epidemiological update - cholera: 6 Aug 2018
In 2017, a total of 13 803 suspected cases of cholera were reported on the island of Hispaniola: 13 681 cases (including 159 deaths) in Haiti and 122 cases (including 4 deaths) in the Dominican Republic.
Although the number of cases reported in both Haiti and the Dominican Republic decreased in 2017 compared to 2016, there was a greater decline in the Dominican Republic given that the rate per 100 000 population decreased from 11.5 to 1.20.

PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax - USA (04): (SD) bovine

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 16:48
Anthrax -- United States
State veterinarian Dustin Oedekoven has confirmed the disease was diagnosed in a group of 300 unvaccinated yearling cattle in Butte County, in western South Dakota. Butte is the 4th county where anthrax has been diagnosed in 2018, following Clark, Bon Homme and Hamlin counties.
Anthrax spores can survive indefinitely in contaminated soil, and the potential for outbreaks exists across South Dakota. Drought, floods and winds can expose anthrax spores to livestock.
Anthrax can cause the

PRO/AH/EDR> Crimean-Congo hem. fever - Pakistan (09) : (ICT) case, advice

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 13:46
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever -- Pakistan
A man has tested positive for the Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) at Pims. Pims media coordinator Dr Waseem Khawaja told Dawn that the patient arrived at the hospital a few days ago with complaining of fever and oral bleeding. He had the symptoms of Congo virus so blood samples were sent to the National Institute of Health (NIH) which tested positive for the disease. Dr Khawaja said the patient belonged to Murree and had cattle in his house. "It was suggested that the health department

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza, human (14): human-animal interface, WHO

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 13:30
Avian Influenza -- Worldwide/Unknown
New infections: since the previous update, one new human infection with an influenza A(H3N2) variant virus [has been] reported.
Risk assessment: the overall public health risk from currently known influenza viruses at the human-animal interface has not changed, and the likelihood of sustained human-to-human transmission of these viruses remains low. Further human infections with viruses of animal origin are expected.
International Health Regulations 2005 compliance: all human infections

PRO/AH/EDR> Nipah virus - India (17): (KL) WHO

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 12:42
Nipah/Hendra Virus -- India
Government response
- A multidisciplinary central team from the National Centre for Disease Control was sent to Kerala to investigate and respond, in close coordination with state government officials.
- More than 2600 contacts were identified and followed up during the outbreak. All symptomatic contacts were investigated and tested for NiV.
- Syndromic surveillance was enhanced in Kerala State. Hospital and community surveillance were also strengthened in Kerala. The Virus Research

PRO/AH/EDR> Hantavirus - Americas (47): Panama (LS)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 12:37
Hantavirus -- Panama
This morning, [6 Aug 2018], health authorities in Los Santos province reported 6 new cases of hantavirus [infections] in the province. The regional coordinator of epidemiology, Carlos Muñoz, said they are 5 adults and a 12 year old child. He stated that of these 6 new cases, only one patient, a 41 year old woman resident of Las Tablas, developed hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and the rest remain as hantavirus fever cases.
Muñoz stated that to date, 55 people have been ill from

PRO/AH/EDR> Scrub typhus - India (03): (UP)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 12:36
Scrub Typhus -- India
Further evidence for the role of scrub typhus comes from a study of trombiculid mites in eastern Uttar Pradesh by Chennai's Vector Control Research Centre (VCRC). They found that the mites carried _Orientia tsutsugamushi_, the bacterium which causes scrub typhus. While this study was published in Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases in July 2018, P Jambulingam, VCRC director, also told The Hindu that unpublished research has shown an increase in infestation of rodents by trombiculid mites during

PRO/AH/EDR> Influenza (23): USA (MI,CA) swine origin H3N2v, human, swine, fair

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 05:55
Influenza H3N2 -- United States
Michigan state and local health officials have identified 2 confirmed cases of influenza A in individuals with exposure to swine at the Fowlerville Family Fair in Livingston county. The fair took place [from 23 to 28 Jul 2018], and several pigs from the fair tested positive for swine flu on [27 Jul 2018]. Further laboratory testing is under way to determine if the flu viruses found in the swine and the ill persons are the same strain. Additional fair attendees are also reporting influenza-like

PRO/AH/EDR> Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (16): (FL) human, animal

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 05:52
Eastern Equine Encephalitis -- United States
- Remove standing water where mosquitoes could lay eggs.
- Once a week, empty and scrub, turn over, cover, or throw out any items that hold water like tires, buckets, planters, toys, pools, birdbaths, flowerpot saucers, or trash containers. Mosquitoes lay eggs near water.
- Tightly cover water storage containers (buckets, cisterns, rain barrels) so that mosquitoes cannot get inside to lay eggs.
- For containers without lids, use wire mesh with holes smaller than an adult mosquito.
- Use

PRO/AH/EDR> Lassa fever - West Africa (40): Nigeria (EN)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 05:44
Lassa Fever -- Nigeria
Lassa fever disease has claimed one life in Enugu state. Commissioner for health, Dr Fintan Ekochin, confirmed the incident, on [Mon 6 Aug 2018]. "We had a case of Lassa fever, unfortunately, he died. It's a confirmed case. As we speak, no other case has been confirmed or suspected. So, we pray it ends as it has already happened. However, there is no cause for alarm. When we [detect] any case, we do the needful regarding those at high, medium, and low risk. So, a certain number of cases

PRO/AH/EDR> Tick-borne encephalitis - Czech Republic (BK)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 05:41
Tick-borne Encephalitis -- Worldwide/Unknown
The reported number of cases of tickborne encephalitis in South Moravia [Jihomoravský in Czech] has more than tripled. By the end of July [2018], 38 cases of the potentially fatal disease had been reported, up from roughly a dozen in the 2 previous summers.
There is no cure for encephalitis, but only about one in 4 Czechs have themselves vaccinated against it. The country has 5 times as many cases as in neighbouring Austria, where 90 per cent of the population takes this

PRO/EDR> Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (27): Africa, Asia

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 08/09/2018 - 05:36
Cholera -- Worldwide/Unknown
1. Guerrant RL, Carneiro-Filho BA, and Dillingham RA. Cholera, diarrhea, and oral rehydration therapy: triumph and indictment. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(3):398-405; available at .
2. Gregorio GV, Gonzales ML, Dans LF, and Martinez EG. Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD006519. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006519.pub2; available at .
3. Gore SM, Fontaine O, and Pierce NF. Impact of rice based oral rehydration solution

Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo

WHO Disease Outbreaks news - Wed, 08/08/2018 - 20:03
On 1 August 2018, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo declared a new outbreak of Ebola virus disease in North Kivu Province, in the eastern part of the country. North Kivu is among the most populated provinces in the country, shares borders with Uganda and Rwanda, and experiences conflict and insecurity, with over one million internally displaced people and migration of refugees to neighbouring countries.

PRO/AH/EDR> MERS-CoV (25): risk assessment, WHO

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 08/08/2018 - 17:04
MERS -- Worldwide/Unknown
Global summary
Between 2012 and [30 Jun 2018], 2229 laboratory confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection were reported to WHO, 83 per cent of whom were reported by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (figure 1. Epidemic curve of MERS-CoV human cases as of [30 Jun 2018] [see URL above]). In total, cases have been reported from 27 countries in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, the United States of America, and Asia (table 1. Number of

PRO/AH/EDR> Rift Valley fever - Eastern Africa (25): Rwanda, bovine, vaccination

ProMED Mail Reports - Wed, 08/08/2018 - 16:49
Rift Valley Fever -- Rwanda
1. Consultative Group for RVF Decision Support. Decision-support tool for prevention and control of Rift Valley fever epizootics in the Greater Horn of Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010. 83(2 Suppl): 75-85. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.83s2a03; .
2. Anonymous. Risk-based decision-support framework for prevention and control of Rift Valley fever epidemics in eastern Africa. EU Collaborative Project, Seventh Framework Programme. 2015. (Grant Agreement no. 266327); .
3. Mariner J. Rift Valley fever
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