Outbreak and Current Disease Status Information

PRO/AH/EDR> Paralytic shellfish poisoning - Chile

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 02/09/2018 - 17:25
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning -- Chile
The Ministry of Health confirmed that a 54-year-old male patient admitted to the Castro Hospital was transported from the Melinka area, after having developed symptoms of intoxication related to the red tide (toxic algal bloom).
This person is said to have eaten shellfish from an area affected by the toxin in Melinka, Aysen Region.
However, interviewed experts have ruled out a relationship between an increase in microalgae and salmon fishing.
The affected man was transported in a

PRO/AH/EDR> Crimean-Congo hem. fever - Namibia: (OH)

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 02/09/2018 - 16:54
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever -- Namibia
The Ministry of Health and Social Services yesterday [Tue 6 Feb 2018] confirmed one case of Crimean Congo fever in the country. The medical superintendent at the Windhoek Central Hospital, Dr David Uirab, told New Era that a 23-year-old man is being kept in isolation at Windhoek Central Hospital because the disease is highly contagious.
The man, who has a history of tick bite, was transported from Gobabis and is from a nearby village in the area. The man is doing well and has responded well

PRO/EDR> Legionellosis - USA (02): (TX) military medical center, staff, new case, RFI

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 02/09/2018 - 16:47
Legionnaires' -- United States
A Brooke Army Medical Center staff member was confirmed to have [legionellosis] on [Tue 6 Feb 2018], BAMC spokesman Robert Whetstone said [Wed 7 Feb 2018].
The staff member works in Building 15 and follows 2 previous cases reported in August [2017]. Because there were 2 or more cases of Legionnaires' disease reported at the same facility within 365 days, it was considered an outbreak, per the Emerging and Acute Infectious Disease Guidelines, Whetstone said in a statement.
"The health

PRO/EDR> Dengue/DHF update (04): Asia, Pacific, vaccination, research

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 02/09/2018 - 16:44
Dengue -- Worldwide/Unknown
On [Fri 2 Feb 2018], Filipino authorities tied at least 3 deaths to the 2016
deployment of Dengvaxia, the world's 1st dengue fever vaccine, Reuters
Vaccine manufacturer Sanofi Pasteur admitted in November [2017] that the vaccine, Dengvaxia, might increase the odds of severe illness in inoculated children who had not previously been infected with the dengue virus. Over 800 000 children were injected with the vaccine, and a panel of experts formed to investigate 14 deaths

PRO/EDR> Chikungunya (02): Kenya, Italy research

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 02/09/2018 - 16:39
Chikungunya -- Kenya
We report partial molecular characterization of isolates from an autochthonous chikungunya virus [CHIKV] cluster in the Latium [Lazio] region of Italy. E1 sequences from 3 patients differ substantially from sequences from the 2007 outbreak in Italy and lack the A226V substitution associated with increased viral fitness in the _Aedes albopictus_ mosquito vector.
Further, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis that included 42 available CHIKV

PRO/EDR> Zika virus (04): Americas, research, observations

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 02/09/2018 - 13:00
Zika virus -- Worldwide/Unknown
The association between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and severe birth defects in infants has led to worldwide attention focused on the mechanisms of the disease and the prevention of future exposure. Surveillance efforts around the world continue with the goal of identifying and monitoring all potentially exposed women and their newborns. For infants who were born with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and their families, an uncertain future awaits. As infants who

PRO/EDR> Chlorine gas exposure - India: (WB)

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 02/09/2018 - 11:13
Poisoning -- India
At least 50 people including kids have fallen ill after inhaling poisonous chlorine gas which leaked from a drum inside a factory in Howrah's [West Bengal] Ghushuri on Monday morning [5 Feb 2018]. The incident took place near Jagannath ghat in Belur sparked panic among locals. People felt a burning sensation in their eyes following the leakage. Some of the nearby schools were shut down due to the incident. After being informed, fire brigade personnel rushed to the spot and threw the packed

PRO/EDR> Norovirus - South Korea: (KW) Winter Olympics

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 02/09/2018 - 10:20
Norovirus -- South Korea
Organizers of the PyeongChang [Gangwon province] Winter Olympics said [Thu 8 Feb 2018] 128 cases of norovirus infections have been confirmed, with no athlete having been affected following the outbreak in the Olympic host city earlier in the week.
Citing data from the Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention, PyeongChang said 128 cases had been confirmed as of [Thu 8 Feb 2018], with 42 new cases on Thursday alone.
Of the 42 new cases, 34 are members of civil security staff. They

PRO/PL> Asian greening, citrus - China

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 20:17
Other Plant Disease -- China
Citrus greening disease caused a drop of 70-80 per cent for Gannan [Gansu Province] navel oranges. Since 2012, these areas have suffered from a widespread outbreak of citrus greening disease.
China's major [citrus] production area has already moved north. The main advantage is that the weather is relatively cold, which limits the spread of citrus greening disease. Farmers have gradually deepened their understanding of this disease. They are able to adopt effective management.
The overall

PRO/EDR> Poliomyelitis update (07): (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Congo DR)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 18:31
Polio -- Pakistan
New wild poliovirus cases reported this week: 2
Total number of wild poliovirus cases in 2018: 3
Total number of wild poliovirus cases in 2017: 22
New cVDPV cases reported this week: 1
Total number of cVDPV cases in 2018: 0
Total number of cVDPV cases in 2017: 92
Summary of newly-reported viruses this week:
- Afghanistan:
2 new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) from Kandahar, and
1 new WPV1 positive environmental sample from Kandahar.
- Pakistan:
2 new WPV1

PRO/PL> Undiagnosed dieback, cocoa - Nigeria: southwest

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 18:27
Undiagnosed -- Nigeria
Cocoa farms in southwestern Nigeria, the country's main growing region, have been bit by outbreaks of a fungal disease identified as dieback, which causes plants to wither and die.
"The trees are drying off from their tops and progressively through the stems and down to the roots," said a farmer, adding that about 125 neighboring plots were also affected. The Cocoa Farmers Association has received reports that about 2500 cocoa trees have the disease in Ogun state. The estimated loss from

PRO/EDR> Hepatitis A - USA (06): (CA)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 18:25
Hepatitis A -- United States
A hepatitis A outbreak has been declared for the homeless in Monterey County.
According to a press release sent by the Monterey County Health Department, health officials have diagnosed 9 people who have a history of homelessness with hepatitis A since October [2017]. Those diagnosed did not travel outside of the county and are assumed to have transmitted the disease within the homeless and illegal drug use communities in the county, according to the press release.
County health

PRO/EDR> Botulism - Brazil: (PE, SP)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 17:41
Botulism -- Brazil
The lawyer's daughter said that the Sanitary Surveillance took milk and a soy cheese from the patient's home to try to determine the origin of the bacteria that caused the disease. According to the health department, the material was sent to Adolfo Lutz for analysis and the results are awaited.
[Byline: Rita Magalhães]
Communicated by:
[It is unclear, but not unreasonable to think that the 2 outbreaks in separate

PRO/AH/EDR> Glanders, equine - India (02): (GJ)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 16:39
Glanders -- India
1. Elschner MC, Neubauer H and Sprague LD. The resurrection of glanders in a new epidemiological scenario: a beneficiary of "global change". Curr Clin Microbiol Rep. 2017; 4(1): 54-60. Abstract available at
2. Van Zandt KE, Greer MT and Gelhaus HC. Glanders: an overview of infection in humans. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2013; 8: 131. Available at
- Mod.AS
Gujarat State, India: ]
[See Also:
HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Glanders, equine - India: (UP), spread

PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax - Namibia: (Etosha Natl Park) wildlife, dust bathing risk

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 16:29
Anthrax -- Namibia
Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of _Bacillus anthracis_ spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as _B. anthracis_, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust

PRO/EDR> Syphilis - USA: congenital, rising incidence

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 16:01
Syphilis -- United States
Newborn syphilis cases have shot up in the United States in recent years, so an expert panel is reaffirming the need to screen all pregnant women for the infection.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that can be passed from pregnant women to their babies -- in what doctors call congenital syphilis. Since 2012, U.S. government figures show, congenital syphilis has nearly doubled. In 2016, 628 cases of congenital syphilis were reported -- the highest rate since 1998.
If a pregnant

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (27): Israel, Taiwan HPAI H5N8, Afghanistan, HPAI H5, OIE, RFI

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 15:03
Avian Influenza H5N8, Avian Influenza -- Israel
Information received on 7 Feb 2018 from Dr Shlomo Garazi, Chief Officer for Import and Export of the Veterinary Services, Veterinary Services and Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, BET DAGAN, Israel
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 30 Jan 2018
Date of confirmation of the event: 7 Feb 2018
Reason for notification: recurrence a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 14 Feb 2017
Manifestation of disease: clinical

PRO/AH/EDR> Psittacosis - Argentina: (ER)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 14:53
Psittacosis -- Argentina
The Ministry of Health, through the Epidemiology Department, has provided preventive measures to avoid new cases of psittacosis, after 2 families developed the disease in 2 different sites of Entre Rios (Paraná and Gualeguaychú).
Psittacosis is an acute infectious disease produced by the bacterium _Chlamydophila psittaci_, found in secretions of many birds, which transmit the infection to humans through inhalation, entering the respiratory tract and lodging the bacteria in the lungs.

PRO/EDR> Dengue/DHF update (03): Americas, research, observations

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 13:00
Dengue -- United States
Cases by Country / Week updated / Probable / Conf. / Virus type / DHF severe / Deaths
North America
USA / 52 [w/e 29 Dec 2017] / 0 / 348 / D? / 0 / 0
Central America and Mexico
Belize / 52 [w/e 29 Dec 2017] / 2960 / 47 / D? / 2 / 0
Costa Rica / 52 [w/e 29 Dec 2017] / 5561 / -- / D 1,2 / 0 / 0
El Salvador / 52 [w/e 29 Dec 2017] / 4300 / 232 / D2 / 7 / 0
Guatemala / 49 [w/e 8 Dec 2017] / 4116 / 1378 / D 1,2,3,4 / 71 / 14
Honduras / 52 [w/e 29 Dec 2017] / 5217 / 0 / D 1,2,3 / 126 /

PRO/EDR> Carbapenem-resistant organisms - New Zealand: (Auckland) nosocomial, burn center

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 02/08/2018 - 12:42
Antimicrobial resistance -- New Zealand
Carbapenem-resistant organisms have been detected in 3 patients at the National Burns Centre, based at Middlemore Hospital. Admissions to the National Burns Centre in south Auckland have been limited after a "highly unusual" multi-drug resistant organism infected 3 patients.
The 1st case -­ which is thought to have been acquired overseas ­- was detected in a patient at the centre on [10 Dec 2017]. Infection control measures were put in place, but a 2nd patient was found to be infected
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